WhiteSmoke’s online grammar checker is the best grammar checker software available for identifying and fixing grammar mistakes in academic documents, business letters, and anything else. The grammar checker checks and corrects all common errors found in writing. With this online grammar checker from WhiteSmoke you can proofread the text with just a simple click of the mouse. Our online grammar checker will prevent the embarrassment of sending out text riddled with grammar errors. A document that has been through our English grammar checker will look more professional, ensuring that get the new client, close that deal, or ace that term paper. The grammar checker software will spot errors that most human readers would not catch. To learn more, click HERE...
About Acronyms and Abbreviations
There is a difference between acronyms and abbreviations.
Acronyms are made from initial letters of words and are pronounced differently than the original words, for example, ESL, ELT, IELTS, TOEFL, AILA.
Abbreviations are shortened versions of words. They can be written differently from the original forms of words but are pronounced the same, for example, Prof (Professor), Dr (Doctor).
Recursive acronyms are also abbreviations, for example, Life Is For Eternity = LIFE. Learn MORE...
Retire in Mexico
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About World Cultures
Culture Briefings offer solid, authoritative information on world cultures. They are produced by a team that brings together backgrounds in cultural geography and cultural anthropology as well as extensive experience living for extended periods in a variety of foreign cultures and writing about travel, geography and culture for both the popular press and college-level textbooks. To learn more, click HERE...
Australian Migration and Education Solutions
With the help of the information on this site, you may be able to decide what and where to study in Australia. You can then make all the necessary arrangements yourself, but this is a pretty complicated process, so you may prefer to appoint an Education Agent to do everything for you. You can get detailed personalised advice on your study and emigration options. To learn more, click HERE...
Learn How a College Dropout Discovered One Secret
James Connelly A.K.A “The Penny Stock Prophet” was a college student majoring in Mathematics, when he stumbled upon the secret to making a fortune in the Stock Market. While his professors reminded him that he was not the first person who attempted to discover a pattern in the stock market... he was confident that he could develop a unique strategy that would give the average investor “an edge” in determining which stocks have the best probability for success. Connelly began to use his understanding of computation, statistics, and random processes to determine if winning stocks actually did follow an identifiable statistical pattern. Connelly spent months pouring over his research; analyzing trading patterns, volume, resistance level, and any other identifiable factors to help him determine when a stock was about to experience a bullish trading pattern. The results were astounding! To learn how James made a fortune in the Stock Market, click HERE...
The Formula for Riches
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The Diet Solution
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American English Course
This is an American accent program for international professionals, in the United States, Canada, and around the world. This program is a brand new self-study course that will show your ESL students exactly what Americans are doing to pronounce American English sounds and how your students can do it, too. Your students will learn everything they need to know about pronunciation and accent, e.g. the difference between vowel sounds in 'cat', 'cot', and 'cut' (many learners confuse them). How to pronounce correctly in the American way the vowels in 'foot' and 'cook', how to distinguish between 'hit' and 'heat', and more... To learn more, click HERE...
Ginger Software is the leading contextual grammar and spell checker on the market today. Based on a full sentence context, Ginger can automatically correct severe spelling and grammatical mistakes at an unmatched success rate. It enables users to produce error-free texts, quickly and easily. The product operates as an online service and supports MS-Word, MS-Outlook, MS-PowerPoint, Internet Explorer and Firefox. Ginger Software's mission is to facilitate error-free writing, particularly for those who use English as a second language or for those with learning difficulties like dyslexia. A unique text-correction algorithm automatically analyzes the context of errors in written English and selects the most appropriate semantic and grammatical correction. To learn more, click HERE...
Acronyms Acronyms are abbreviations. They are formed by using the initial letters of words. There are many different types of acronyms.
There are a few synonyms:initialisms, alphabetisms.
Related terms:backronym, apronym, anacronym, laser acronym, pseudo-acronym.
For example, ESL and EFL are the acronyms that are very often used in English schools and colleges worldwide. ESL means 'English as a Second Language' and EFL means 'English as a Foreign Language'. The acronym ESL is used when students learn English in an English speaking country such as the United States, Canada, Australia, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and South Africa. The acronym EFL is used when students learn English in a non-English speaking country such as Germany, France, Denmark, Sweden, Lithuania, Finland, Estonia, Japan, China, Malaysia, and Thailand. There are some methodological differences in teaching.
ESL and EFL Related Acronyms A AAAL American Association for Applied Linguistics AAIEP American Association of Intensive English Programs AASB Association of American Schools of Brazil AASSA Association of American Schools of South America AAVE African American Vernacular English ABE Adult Basic Education ABEEB Association of British ESOL Examining Boards ABLS Association of British Language Schools ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics ACCESS Auxiliary Closed Captioned English with Simplified Spelling ACCET Accrediting Council of Continuing Education and Training ACE Adult and Community Education ACER Australian Council for Educational Research A.Cert.TESOL Advanced Certificate in TESOL (College of Teachers / Preceptors) ACoT Associate of the College of Teachers ACP (TESOL) Associate of the College of Preceptors (now ACoT Tesol) ACTFL American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages ACT American College Testing's Examination (an evaluation test for undergraduate admission to colleges and universities in the US; equivalent to the SAT) ACT ASSET ACT Assessment of Skills for Successful Entry and Transfer ACTDEC Accreditation Council for TESOL Distance Education Courses ACTFL American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages ACT PEP ACT Proficiency Examination Program ACTFL American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages AE American English ADLTM Advanced Diploma in English Language Teaching Management AE American English (or Adult Education) AEB Associated Examining Board AEC Australian Education Council AEI Adult Education Institute AERT Aboriginal Education Resource Teacher AEU Australian Education Union AEW Aboriginal Education Worker AGPS Australian Government Printing Service AILA Association Internationale de Linguistique Appliquée (an international federation of national associations for applied linguistics) AITAS Aboriginal and Islander Tutorial Assistance Scheme ALEC Association of Language Excellence Centres (England) ALM Audio-Lingual Method ALSIC Apprentissage des langues et systèmes d'information et de communication (language learning and information and communication systems journal) ALTE Association of Language Testers in Europe ALTO Association of Language Travel Organisations AmE American English APA American Philological Association (founded in 1869) APACALL Asia-Pacific Association for Computer-Assisted Language Learning ASL American Sign Language (also: Ameslan; sign language of the deaf community in the USA, Canada and Mexico) AQA Assessment and Qualifications Alliance ARELS Association of Recognised English Language Services ASSETS Aboriginal Summer School for Extension in Technology and Science ASSPA Aboriginal Student Support and Parent Awareness (program) ATSIC Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission
B BAAL British Association for Applied Linguistics BACC British Accreditation Council for Further and Higher Education BALEAP British Association of Lecturers in English for Academic Purposes BALT British Association for Language Teaching BAM Brain and Motivation BAS Bibliographic Access Services BASELT British Association of State English Language Teaching BATQI British Association of TESOL Qualifying Institutions BC British Council BE Bilingual Education BE Black English BEC Business English Certificate B.Ed Bachelor of Education BEST Basic English Skills Test (or: Basic Education Support Team, Bringing Everybody's Strengths Together, Building Essential Skills for Tomorrow, Building Excellence in Supervisory Training) BICS Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills BIELT British Institute of English Language Teaching BrE British English BSS Basic Study Skills BTEC Business and Technology Education Council BULATS Business Language Testing Service BVT Bilingual Vocational Training C CAE Certificate in Advanced English CAELA Center for Adult English Language Acquisition CAL Center for Applied Linguistics CALL Computer Assisted Language Learning CALLA Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach CALP Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency CAN Communicative Acquisitionist Naturalistic CanE Canadian English CAPLS Canadian Association of Private Language Schools CARLA Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition CASM Centre for Aboriginal Studies in Music (Adelaide University) CAT Computer Aided (or Assisted) Translation (software) CAT Computer Adaptive Testing; also - Computer Aided / Assisted Teaching CBEVE Central Bureau for Educational Visits and Exchanges CBL Computer Based Learning CBI Content Based Instruction CBT Computer Based Test (or Computer Based TOEFL) CCLB Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks CCSE Certificates in Communicative Skills in English CDEP Community Development Employment Program CEELT Cambridge Examination in English for Language Teachers (tests the English competency of non-native teachers of English) CEIBT Certificate in English for International Business and Trade (tests for high level English competency for the workplace) CELT Comprehensive English Language Test CELTA Certificate in English Language Teaching for Adults (replaced CTEFLA) CELTYL Certificate in English Language Teaching to Young Learners in Language Schools CertTEfIC Specialist Certificate in Teaching English for Industry and Commerce (Trinity College) Cert (ES) TESOL Certificate of Educational Studies in TESOL (ACTDEC) CertTEB Certificate in Teaching English for Business (LCCIEB) CertTESOL Certificate in Teaching of English for Speakers of Other Languages Cert (TM) TESOL Certificate in the Theory and Methodology of TESOL (ACTDEC) CfBT Centre for British Teachers CFP Call For Papers CILT Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research CLAD Cross-cultural Language & Academic Development CLBA Canadian Language Benchmarks Assessment CLEAR Center for Language Education And Research CLEP College Level Examination Program CLESOL Community Languages and English for Speakers of Other Languages CLIL Content and Language Integrated Learning CLL Community Language Learning CLT Communicative Language Teaching CILTS Cambridge Integrated Language Teaching Schemes CLANZ Community Languages Association of New Zealand CLD Cultural and Linguistic Diversity CMC Computer Mediated Communication (or Course Management Systems) CoBaLTT Content-Based Language Teaching with Technology COCI Classroom Oral Competency Interview COTE Certificate for Overseas Teachers of English CPE Cambridge Proficiency Examination CRELS Combined Registered English Language Schools (New Zealand) CTEFLA Certificate in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language to Adults (replaced by CELTA) CV Curriculum Vitae (or resume, biodata) CWCA Classroom Writing Competency Assessment
D DBE Developmental Bilingual Education DECS Department for Education and Childrens Services (South Australia) DEET Department of Employment, Education and Training DEETYA Department of Employment, Education, Training and Youth Affairs DELTA Diploma in English Language Teaching for Adults (replaced DTEFLA) DELTYL Diploma in English Language Teaching to Young Learners (UCLES) DES Diploma in English Studies (UCLES) DFEE Department for Education and Employment Dip Diploma Dip.BPE Diploma in Business and Professional English Language Teaching (UCLES) Dip.CoT Diploma of the College of Teachers Dip.CP (TESOL) Diploma of the College of Preceptors (now Dip.CoT Tesol) Dip.TESAL Diploma in the Teaching of English to Speakers of Asian Languages (Trinity College) Dip.TIB Diploma in Teaching English for Business (LCCIEB) Dip (TM) TESOL Diploma in the Theory and Methodology of TESOL (ACTDEC) Dip (TM) TESP Diploma in the Theory and Methodology of TESP (ACTDEC) DOS Director of Studies DOTE Diploma for Overseas Teachers of English (UCLES - replaced by DELTA) DRIVE Define, Review, Identify, Verify, Execute DTEFLA Diploma in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language to Adults (replaced by DELTA) E EAD English as an Academic Discourse EAP English for Academic Purposes EAL English as an Acquired Language EAQUALS European Association for Quality Language Services EAT European Association of Teachers EBE English for Business and Economics ECCE Exam for the Certificate of Competency in English (Michigan University; for lower level) ECIS European Council of International Schools ECML Electronic Commerce Modeling Language ECPE Exam for the Certificate of Proficiency in English (Michigan University; for higher level) EDEXCEL Educational Excellence EDNAS Educated Native Speakers EEP English for Employment Purposes EFB English for Business (LCCIEB) EFC English for Commerce (LCCIEB) EFL English as a Foreign Language EFTI English for the Tourism Industry (LCCIEB) EGP English for General Purposes EIL English as an International Language ELF English as a Lingua Franca ELICOS English Language Intensive Courses for Overseas Students (Australia) ELIU English Language Information Unit (British Council) ELL English Language Learner ELSA English Language Skills Assessment (LCCIEB) ELT English Language Teaching EMT English Mother Tongue ENL English as a Native Language EOP English for Occupational Purposes EPIK English Program in Korea EPP English for Professional Purposes ERP English for Research Purposes ERS Extensive Reading Skills ESB English Speaking Board ESID Every Situation is Different ESL English as a Second language ESOL English for Speakers of Other Languages ESP English for Specific Purposes ESS English for Social Sciences EST English for Science and Technology ETJ English Teachers in Japan (an organization for English language teachers in Japan) ETS Educational Testing Service ESU English Speaking Union EUROCALL European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning EVP English for Vocational Purposes E4W English for Work E4WP English for Workplace EWOW English World of Work F FCE First Certificate in English (the third of Cambridge's series of exams comparable to a score of 500 on the TOEFL and 5.7 on the IELTS) FCE First Certificate in English (UCLES) FCoT Fellow of the College of Teachers (UK) FE Further Education FES Fluent English Speaker FEP Fluent English Proficient (or Proficiency) FEW Foreign Women in Japan (a networking organisation whose aim is to help foreign women in Japan achieve their full professional and/or personal potential) FIELS Federation of Independent English Language Schools (New Zealand) FLA Foreign Language Annals (journal) FLATS Foreign Language Achievement Tests FLES Foreign Language in Elementary School FLEX Foreign Language Experience (related to programs of immersion) FLIC Foreign Languages for Industry and Commerce (LCCIEB) FLOSEM Foreign Language Oral Skills Evaluation Matrix FLT Foreign Language Teaching (or Training) FTBE Foundation Certificate for Teachers of Business English (LCCIEB) G GED General Educational Development Test GES General English Skills GFP General Foundation Program GLOBE Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment GMAT Graduate Management Admission Test GNVQ General National Vocational Qualification (UK) GPA Grade Point Average GTELP General Tests of English Language Proficiency GTM Grammar Translation Method H HE Higher Education HEI Higher Education Institution HILT High Intensity Language Training HLS Home Language Survey HNC Higher National Certificate (BTEC) HND Higher National Diploma (BTEC) HPA Home Providers Association I IATEFL International Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language IB International Baccalaureate IDLTM International Diploma in Language Teaching Management (one of the most advanced of the University of Cambridge ESOL teaching awards) IDP International Development Programme (for Australian Universities and Colleges; IDP Education Australia, a non-profit company owned by universities; key recruiter of international students to Australia) IDPA International Development Program of Australia IELTDHE Institute for English Language Teacher Development in Higher Education (UK) IELTS International English Language Testing System IEP Intensive English program IHE Institution of higher education IIE Institute of International Education (USA agency that promotes higher education and the exchange of students and professors worldwide) ILSA Independent Language Schools Association IoL Institute of Linguists IPA International Phonetic Alphabet (or Association) IRS Intensive Reading Skills IST Instructional Support Team J JACET Japan Association of College English Teachers (an organization for language teachers in JapanJALT Japan Association for Language Teaching) JALT Japan Association for Language Teaching (an organization for language teachers in JapanJCLA Joint Council of Language Associations) JET Japanese Exchange and Teaching Programme (or Junior English Tests (AQA exam) K K12 Kindergarten to 12th grade (it refers to primary and secondary school, i.e. students from kindergarten to Grade 12) KET Key English Test (the most elementary of Cambridge's series of exams) KOTESOL Korea Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages (an organization for language teachers in Korea; also: KoTESOL as 'Korea TESOL') KWIC Keywords in Context (in text analysis - a way of displaying the words in a text so that the keywords are listed in the middle column with a certain amount of context on either side; KWIC displays (also: concordances) are generated by concordancing keyword software) L LAC Learning Assistance Center (or: Liberal Arts College, Library Advisory Committee, Local Advisory Committee, Local Access Communications, Local Area Connection, Local Analysis Center, Loud and Clear)
LAD Language Acquisition Device LAGB Linguistics Association of Great Britain LAURELS Latin American Union of Registered English Language Schools L1 First Language (mother tongue) L2 Second Language (or any additional language) LCCIEB London Chamber of Commerce and Industry Examinations Board LCD Linguistically and Culturally Diverse (or LCD Projector) LCTL Less Commonly Taught Languages LDL Lernen durch Lehren (Learning by teaching) LEP Limited English Proficiency (or Proficient) LES Limited English Speaker LINC Language Instruction for Newcomers to Canada LISALanguage Immersion Student Assessment LL Language Lab (or Language Learning) LLBA Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts LM Language Minority LMS Language Minority Student (or Learning Management System) LTE London Tests of English (by Pearson Language Assessments) LTM Language Training Mission (or Lateral Translation Mode, Learning Team Meeting, Local Test Manager, Long Term Memory)
M MALL Mobile Assisted Language Learning (by using cell phones) MATESL Master of Arts in Teaching English as a Second Language MCE Manually Coded English (visual communication methods expressed through the hands which attempt to represent the English language) ME Middle English MELAB Michigan English Language Assessment Battery MEP Migrant Education Program MEXT Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (a Japanese government organization) MLA Modern Language Association MLAT Modern Language Aptitude Test MLAT-E Modern Language Aptitude Test - Elementary MLJ Modern Language Journal MT Machine Translation (or Mother Tongue) MTELP Michigan Test of English Language Proficiency MultiCAT Multimedia Computer Adaptive Language Placement Test
N NAAE National Association of Advisors in English NAFSA Association of International Educators (promotes the exchange of students and scholars to and from the United States) NAIDOC National Aboriginal and Islander Day of Celebration NALA National Association of Language Advisors NATE National Association for the Teaching of English NATECLA National Association for Teaching English and other Community Languages to Adults (UK) NATEFLI National Association of TEFL in Ireland NATESOL National Association of Teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages NATFHE National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education (UK) NCILT National Centre for Industrial Language Training NCLE National Congress on Languages in Education NCML National Council for Modern Languages in Higher and Further Education NCTE National Council of Teachers of English (USA) NCVQ National Council for Vocational Qualifications ND National Diploma (BTEC) NEAB Northern Examinations and Assessment Board NELLE Networking English Language Learning in Europe NEP Non English Proficiency (or Proficient) NES Non-English Speaking NESB Non-English Speaking Background NEST Native English Speaking Teacher NFLRC National Foreign Language Resource Center NFMLTA National Federation of Modern Language Teachers Associations NIACE National Institute of Adult Continuing Education NL Native Language NLP Neurolinguistic Programming NLLIA National Languages and Literacy Institute of Australia NNEST Non-Native English Speaking Teacher NNL Non-Native Language NNS Non-Native Speaker NS Native Speaker NVQ National Vocational Qualification O OCR Office of Civil Rights ODA Overseas Development Agency ODL Open and Distant Learning OE Old English OED Oxford English Dictionary OET Occupational English Test (an Australian ESL test for overseas qualified medical professionals seeking admittance to training programs or in order to practice their profession in Australia) OFSTED Office for Standards in Education (UK) OHP Overhead Projector OIBEC Oxford International Business English Certificate (UODLE) OL Open Learning OLAT Online Learning And Training (the web-based open-source learning management system based on Java) OPI Oral Proficiency Interview (conducted by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages) OU Open University P PBE Practical Business English (LCCIEB) PDA Personal Digital Assistant PEAT Professional English Assessment for Teachers (conducted in Australia by the University of NSW Institute of Languages to assess reading, writing, listening and speaking skills in a teaching context) PEI Pitman Examinations Institute PES Publicly Examined Subjects PET Preliminary English Test (the second of Cambridge series of exams) PGCE Post Graduate Certificate in Education (UK teaching qualification) PHLOTE Primary Home Language Other Than English PIE Pacific Intercultural Exchange PPP Present, Practice, Produce (traditional three-step teaching approach) Pre-Cert (ES) TESOL Preliminary Certificate of Educational Studies in TESOL (ACTDEC) PSS Public Speaking Skills (or Public Speaking Society) Q QTS Qualified Teacher Status R RA Recorded Achievement (low pass in SACE subjects) ReCaCo Reserve Capacity Communication RELSA Recognised English Language Schools Association (an association of 18 EFL schools in England) RP Received Pronunciation (refers to a variety of British English dialects representing the accent of educated BrE, and popularly known as the King's English, the Queen's English, BBC English, Oxford English, and Public School English) RPG Role Playing Games RSA Royal Society of Arts (The Royal Society for the encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (UK) S SA Satisfactory Achievement (high pass in SACE subjects) SACE South Australian Certificate of Education SAE Standard American English SALT Scottish Association for Language Teaching SAS School Assessed Subjects SAT Scholastic Assessment (or Aptitude) Test (an evaluation test for undergraduate admission to colleges and universities in the United States; it measures verbal and mathematical abilities) SATEFL Scottish Association of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language SATESL Scottish Association for the Teaching of English as a Second Language SCORM Sharable Content Object Reference Model (a technical specification that governs how e-learning is created and delivered to learners) SCOTTESOL Scottish TESOL Association SCT Sociocultural Theory (a theory of human development based on Vygotsky's work) SEA State Education Agency SEFIC Spoken English for Industry and Commerce (LCCIEB) SESOL Spoken English for Speakers of Other Languages (Trinity College) SET Senior English Tests (AQA Exam) SEVIS Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (the new system developed by the United States Government to keep track of all exchange visitors (J visas) and international foreign students (F and M visas) during their stay in the United States; it replaced an old-fashioned, paper-driven procedure; information is updated and maintained through the use of a web-based application. SEVIS has enabled schools and exchange program sponsors to transmit electronic information via the internet to the Department of Homeland Security and the U.S. Department of State) SFL Systemic Functional Linguistics (centred on language functionality) SIETAR Society of International English Cultural Training and Research SIG Special Interest Group Sim-Com Simultaneous Communication SLA Second Language Acquisition SLACC/I Second Language Acquisition through Classroom Communication/Interaction SNVQ Scottish National Vocational Qualification SOLOM Student Oral Language Observation Matrix (a matrix of descriptions used to assess an English learner's oral proficiency; developed by the California Department of Education) SOPA Student Oral Proficiency Assessment SOPR Student Oral Proficiency Rating SRC Student Representative Council SSABSA Senior Secondary Assessment Board of South Australia SSS Simplified Spelling Society (or Sign Supported Speech) STAMP Standards-based Measurement of Proficiency STT Student Talking Time SVQ Scottish Vocational Qualifications T TAFE Technical and Further Education TBE Transitional Bilingual Education TBI Task Based Instruction TBL Task Based Learning TBLL Task Based Language Learning TBLT Task Based Language Teaching TEAL Teaching English as an Additonal Language TEAP Teaching English for Academic Purposes TEC Translational English Corpus (or Training and Enterprise Council) TEEP Test of English for Educational Purposes TEFL Teaching of English as a Foreign Language TEFLA Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Adults TOEFL Teaching of English as a Foreign Language TEIL Teaching English as an International Language TELL Technology Enhanced Language Learning TENAR Teaching English for No Apparent Reason (a derisive term; describes a required (compulsory) ESL course attended by students who are not motivated to study) TEP Transitional English Proficiency (or Tourism English Proficiency (UODLE) TESL Teaching of English as a Second language TESOL Teaching of English to Speakers of Other Languages (or Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages) TESOLANZ Teachers of English for Speakers of Other Languages, Aotearoa New Zealand TESP Teaching English for Specific/Special Purposes TEYL Teaching English to Young Learners TKT Teaching Knowledge Test (a new test about teaching English to speakers of other languages by the University of Cambridge) TL Target Language TOEFL Test of English as a Foreign Language TOEFL CBT TOEFL Computer Based Test TOEFL® iBT TOEFL Internet-Based Test TOEIC Test of English for International Communication TEVAC Teaching English for Vacation and Activity Courses TOT Tip of the Tongue (tip-of-the-tongue refers to the difficulty of not having the right word come readily to mind) TP Teaching Practice TPR Total Physical Response TPRS Total Physical Response Storytelling TSE Test of Spoken English TTS Text To Speech TTT Teacher Talking Time TUJ Temple University Japan (offers popular postgraduate courses related to teaching) TWE Test of Written English TYLE Teaching Young Learners English (Young Learners can mean under 18 or much younger)
U UCLES University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate UETESOL University Entrance Test for Speakers of Other Languages (NEAB) UKCOSA United Kingdom Council for Overseas Student Affairs ULCA University Language Centres Australia (a network of 28 universities in Australia which offer English language courses to international students) ULEAC University of London Examinations and Assessment Council UODLE University of Oxford Delegacy of Examinations USIA United States Information Agency USIS United States Information Service V VESL Vocational English as a Second Language VLE Virtual Learning Environment (or Virtual Living Environment) VOCI Video Oral Communication Instrument VSO Voluntary Services Overseas W WEFT Written English for the Tourism Industry (LCCIEB) WYSTC The World Youth and Student Travel Conference 5W's Who, What, Where, When and Why Y YLE Young Learners English Tests (Cambridge tests to assess the English of primary learners between the ages of 7 and 12) Z ZPD Zone of Proximal Development (acronym used by Vygotsky when referring to the potential cognitive development in a social setting providing collaborative and non-intrusive assistance).
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